The Council has adopted a series of conclusions on sports-related violence. In these conclusions the Council emphasises the unique challenge to security posed by the UEFA EURO championship, given that the competition will take place in 11 European cities simultaneously.
The Council emphasises that the organisers of major events taking place during the COVID-19 pandemic should continue to adopt measures and procedures that prevent the spread of the virus among all actors involved.
The Council also stresses the relevance of international police cooperationand information exchange to ensure a safe and secure competition. Acknowledging that monitoring the movement of risk supporters may be vital to prevent public disorder and associated criminal activity, it encourages effective international cooperation through the deployment of specialised law enforcement officers as well as other liaison officers, even if a sports event takes place without general public attending.
The Council recognises that, in view of several recent incidents of sports-related violence, it is crucial to address this issue beyond the sports venues themselves. The scope of preventive measures should be enlarged to cover locations such as public transport, hotels, training centres, night-life areas and other public spaces.
The Council stresses the importance of protecting public spaces and private spaces open to the public, namely through the implementation of security-by-design concepts and the use of surveillance and detection systems that incorporate artificial intelligence, while respecting fundamental rights. It also calls on member states to continue to monitor online content, with a view to preventing and mitigating the dissemination of messages that incite violence, extremism, radicalisation and xenophobia.
Lastly, the Council stresses the need for member states to increase the risk assessment of risk supporters, especially those with extremist ideologies, so as to identify, prevent and limit possible hostile and criminal activity during international sporting events.
For years, criminology and other disciplines have raised the need for a cross-cutting, multi-actor approach to dealing with security.
One of the more structured cross-cutting approaches is Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) which, in essence, responds to the questions raised by environmental criminology through knowledge of how our surroundings (environment) condition security (and crime) and the methodologies that need to be designed and used to work in this field effectively. Although initially focused on the design of physical spaces, CPTED has since been extended to include social aspects relating to the movements and activities of the population within those spaces, a critical factor when considering security-related issues.
The approaches proposed by CPTED have been adopted, more or less implicitly, by influential organisations such as the European Forum for Urban Security (EFUS), the Spanish Forum for Prevention and Urban Security (FEPSU), and by several urban regeneration projects in various cities around us.
Recent developments have confirmed the growing influence of this perspective and increased recognition of its effectiveness. A long standardisation process finally resulted in the approval of technical recommendations (CEN/TR 14383-2) in 2007, and this year, an ISO has been approved globally, ISO 22341, demonstrating the consolidation of the approach. The ISO constitutes an agreement on the minimum standards required to ensure environmental design principles are respected in specific spaces and areas. While the standards may still be more centred on the more physical aspects of spaces, they confirm the movement’s widespread acceptance.
The European Cutting Crime Impact (CCI) project, of which the Ministry of Home Affairs is a member, has also included this approach to prevention among its four fundamental lines of work as an effective and reliable way to reduce insecurity and limit its impact.
In Catalonia, multiple security, criminology and police professionals have recognised the need for a structured approach to promoting this type of prevention, creating the Catalan Association for the Prevention of Insecurity through Environmental Design (ACPIDA), which will be launched publicly and begin its activities in the coming months. Integrated within the framework of the International Association for the Prevention of Crime through Environmental Design (ICA), it will provide training, information and advice in the field.
Finally, on a state level, a new Spanish publication called A guide to crime prevention. Security, urban design, citizen participation and police action, provides a clear and practical guide on how to apply the CPTED principles to public spaces. César San Juan and Laura Vozmediano, professors at the University of the Basque Country and prestigious authors in the field of environmental criminology, have made an effort to translate the principles into concrete actions that can act as a practical guide for a range of public security managers and actors when planning, renovating and organising public spaces. The work offers the considerable benefit of clarity and exemplification by specifying how public spaces should be designed and how the various actors involved must adopt CPTED principles in order to ensure the resulting spaces facilitate security and quality of life for all who use them.
The EU will provide new funding for the effective implementation of the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT).
At the end of April, the European Council adopted a decision allowing the EU to support three projects of the ATT Secretariat in Geneva with a contribution of EUR 1.37 million. The aim is to help the states party to the treaty to strengthen their national arms export control systems. Export control systems are key instruments for preventing the illicit trade and diversion of arms and contribute to more responsible trade in military equipment and technology.
More specifically, the EU’s support will enable the following actions:
– Training local and regional ATT experts to deliver implementation assistance and reduce reliance on external consultants.
– Creating a database to match treaty implementation needs and resources.
– Building IT and communications mechanisms to enable more effective cooperation between states and the ATT Secretariat.
The project also strengthens the ATT Secretariatʼs institutional capacity to provide sustainable support to the states party to the treaty. It fits within the recently adopted strategy to strengthen the EUʼs contribution to rules-based multilateralism by promoting global peace and security.
This decision is also part of the EUʼs long-standing support of the ATT. In addition to facilitating early negotiations on the treaty, the EU has provided approx. EUR 15 million for numerous projects aimed at promoting its universal adoption and implementation.
The ATTʼs universal adoption and implementation are crucial to the reduction of violence and human suffering in conflict-affected regions. In force since December 2014, the Arms Trade Treaty regulates international trade in conventional arms, their parts and ammunition, with the goal of eradicating the illicit sale and diversion thereof. All EU Member States are parties to the Treaty.
The ATT Secretariat manages the reporting by states, their national points of contact, and national control lists. In addition to organising the conferences of states and work sessions, it also administers the ATT Voluntary Trust Fund, which assists states’ implementation of the Treaty.
The Cutting Crime Impactproject (CCI), funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Programme, aims to prevent ordinary crime (non-organised crime) where possible and, should it occur, reduce its impact. To this end, the project will address four focus areas: predictive policing, community policing, crime prevention through urban design & planning and citizens’ perceptions of insecurity. The project will develop tailored “tool kits” for each of the four focus areas that law enforcement agencies can use to achieve the project’s goals.
Regarding the perception of security or subjective security, the Ministry of Home Affairs, as a partner in the project, was tasked with designing a tool that can help to enhance citizens’ feelings of security. The chosen formula for the tool was a guide called “Perception matters”, which provides practical and useful advice to security managers dealing with the public’s response to outbreaks of insecurity in specific areas of the city. Manifestations of feelings of insecurity are often linked to particular neighbourhoods and even certain times of the day. A standard, generic response is doomed to failure; an at least somewhat in-depth (and, if possible, quick) analysis is needed to identify the reasons behind that particular outbreak of insecurity (rather than insecurity in general) in order to adopt measures that specifically address those causes.
Security officials come under a lot of pressure when there is a public manifestation of insecurity or fear of crime. This pressure often prevents them from having enough time and space to analyse the situation properly, leading them to fall back on routine and highly visible actions that may reduce public and political pressure but do nothing to solve the problem. The “Perception Matters” guide contains simple and practical criteria that those tasked with responding to public manifestations of insecurity can use to identify which urgent measures, if any, they should take. Once those urgent measures have been implemented, security managers should conduct an in-depth analysis of the situation to inform a more comprehensive response with short, medium and long-term measures, rather than relying on actions that may “divert” attention away from the problem but, in the end, often help to entrench it further.
“Perception Matters” comprises five documents that make up a single strategy. They can be used in conjunction with one another or separately. Booklet 1 constitutes the guide, in the strictest sense of the word. It covers the key questions that anyone with security management responsibilities should ask in the event of an insecurity incident. It also lists the sources that security officials can refer to for more information. At the end of the booklet, some of the concepts to be considered when managing subjective insecurity crises are clarified to improve understanding of the dynamics involved in these types of situations.
Booklet 2 helps us assess whether we are dealing with an incident that requires urgent, immediate action, while continuing with a more comprehensive analysis of the problem. The document includes indicators that can be used to decide whether urgent measures are required or not and recommendations for the type of measures that can be employed.
Booklet 3 provides a straightforward account of the various research methodologies used in social science and practical advice on how they should be managed to obtain the required information without resorting to long-winded reflection procedures. Rather than being a methodology manual, the booklet aims to offer advice on how some methodologies can be used as a simple and effective tool for improving our diagnosis of insecurity.
Booklet 4 offers the reader a set of criteria that can be used to design targeted measures that address the specific contributing factors behind an outbreak of insecurity so that it can be contained and reversed. Various types of cross-cutting short, medium and long-term measures are suggested. It also includes a link to documents that compile good practices in this field.
Booklet 5 offers, on the one hand, guidelines to understanding the importance of communicating with the public in matters of subjective security, and on the other, the criteria that should be followed to ensure that communication leads to an improvement in the public’s perception of security or, at the very least, does not aggravate it further in times of crisis.
Europol has designed a programme, launched this November, that seeks to prevent scams in online shopping over the upcoming high-consumption dates. The biggest retail season of the year is almost here, and you do not even need to leave the comfort of your home to participate. However, neither do cyber criminals.
Easy website design, increased social media traffic and convenience have made buying and selling online products a mainstay of the modern shopping experience. The COVID-19 pandemic has further driven consumers to do their shopping online. For companies, this trend poses both challenges and significant opportunities. More sales and more traffic mean more revenue. But it also means more fraud, as criminals have even more opportunities to steal from both consumers and merchants. So, how should retailers prepare?
Through an awareness campaign launched in mid-November, law enforcement agencies from 16 countries have teamed up with Europol’s European Cybercrime Centre (EC3) and the Merchant Risk Council to share practical tips on how to outwit criminals trying to abuse the online shopping experience.
This awareness campaign is being carried out under the umbrella of the 2020 e-Commerce Action (eComm 2020) led by Europol. This year’s campaign has a special focus on e-merchants, helping them to better identify fraud on their platforms and allowing them to take steps to protect their business and customers against such attacks.
Law enforcement agencies and key retail partners will share the messages of the campaign using the #SellSafe hashtag to reach the widest possible audience.
The threat posed by these criminals is very real: in the lead-up to this campaign, several countries carried out operational actions which resulted in the arrest of 22 cyber criminals in the month of October alone. The awareness campaign launched in November is based on the experience of investigations carried out by law enforcement agencies against fraudulent orders of various kinds, and seeks to help traders better recognise and address the security shortcomings of their platforms.
Europol’s European Cybercrime Centre has produced some guidelines for traders:
• Know your product: a greater risk is entailed by the sale of some items than others. For example, selling small items that can be easily re-sold, and for which there is already a high demand, is riskier than selling personal customised items.
• Know your customer: if you accept card payments and send valuable products to your customers, you’d like to know who you are sending them to, right?
• Establish a safe payment method: your card administrator can advise you on this. By choosing a safe payment method, you will limit the risk of fraud.
• Use a reliable delivery service: choose a delivery method to ensure professional handling of your goods and possible claims of non-delivery.
GPM Mayor Marvin Rees handed-over the resolution at the UN International Day of Peace “Peace One Day”, a one-day gathering of global human rights champions to promote peace and violence reduction. The GPM and Peace in Our Cities are working with Pathfinders, a coalition of 36 national governments and 100 non-governmental partners, to accelerate action and investment in peace, justice and inclusion worldwide.
The global challenge of violence demands a global response. While national governments are key to preventing conflict, fighting crime and reducing domestic violence, cities are even more central players when it comes to preventing and reducing violence.
The COVID-19 pandemic is contributing to devastating social, economic and political consequences around the world. It is also increasing the risk of organised and interpersonal violence in upper, middle and low-income settings alike. Women and children, in particular, are experiencing a greater risk of violence, especially at home and online, as are the most vulnerable, including displaced people and those living in conflict-affected areas. The threat of criminal violence is also rising, as is the spectre of social and political unrest. These challenges are faced most acutely in cities.
The resolution commits city leaders to significantly reduce all forms of lethal violence in cities, invest in evidence-based solutions, work in partnerships with national and international organisations, focus on the most vulnerable communities, empower survivors and young people, break intergenerational cycles of violence, and tackle digital extremism.
Countries like El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala face enduring challenges in addressing insecurity, impunity and corruption. Policymakers need answers to determine better strategic methods of improving governance in the region.
As WOLA explains, the Central America Monitor is an ongoing project that involves collecting data on a series of qualitative and quantitative indicators in eight key areas related to security, justice and human rights.
The Monitor website offers infographics and reports that examine the measures that each country is taking to strengthen the rule of law and security.
The data collected and analysed has revealed trends and areas of concern in the region, including the following:
Across the region, significant advances were made in tackling corruption. However, challenges remain in updating or reforming existing legislation, and in some cases, regressive laws were adopted. The ability of the three countries to stop corruption from flourishing is an especially urgent but complicated issue amidst the COVID-19 pandemic.
While transparency laws and mechanisms exist across the region, some synergies prevent public officials and institutions from reporting the information diligently. For example, some of the institutions examined, specifically the security and defence ministries, are falling short in terms of making important information about how they function available to the public. In Honduras, for example, the body responsible for reviewing financial disclosures by public officials has no way of proactively determining that the information is truthful and accurate.
Even though Honduras and Guatemala have adopted measures aimed, in principle, at creating an enabling environment for the exercise of protecting human rights, high levels of impunity persist for crimes involving human rights violations, killings and threats against human rights defenders. Notably, in a worrying trend, in Guatemala and Honduras, criminal law is frequently abused in an attempt to prevent or halt the work of human rights defenders. In Honduras, 141 human rights defenders were killed between 2014 and 2017.
Specialised legislation has been adopted to help prevent, detect and combat violence and organised crime. While general homicide rates decreased, violence and insecurity remain the primary concerns for the population. In El Salvador, nine out of 10 kidnapping cases taken on by the Attorney General’s Office were archived.
Justice systems across the region are understaffed and facing threats that compromise their independence. These issues compromise the ability of justice systems to investigate and prosecute crimes efficiently. For example, in 2014, in Guatemala, only 2 per cent of the complaints presented to the Attorney General’s Office ended with convictions.
Violence has long been one of the most significant global challenges for humankind. Hundreds of millions of men, women and children have been killed or affected by armed conflicts, crimes, extremisms, sexual violence and gender-based violence.
Violence corrodes our democratic institutions and undermines fundamental human rights. An increase in some kinds of collective violence is also possible during the next decade, primarily motivated by the pressures of climate change and insecurities surrounding new technologies.
Nonetheless, although it hasn’t made the headlines, the last half century has made some progress towards preventing and reducing many types of violence.
Unfortunately, there’s no guarantee that this relatively recent downward trend will continue as we move further into the twenty-first century. But with targeted and financially sustainable interventions, especially in cities, levels of many types of violence may continue to decline. This, in fact, is one of the main aspirations of sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdg16. The world has a genuine opportunity to halve its current levels of violence by 2030. To achieve this, we have to take stock of where we’re at today and make decisions about where we want to be in the future. This is what bold initiatives such as the Pathfinders Partnership are trying to answer.
It’s important to reflect on the number of people affected by violence. Although it’s difficult to measure precisely, up to 600,000 people, including almost 100,000 women and children, die worldwide as a consequence of conflicts, crimes, extremist violence and extrajudicial circumstances. Millions more are left physically or psychologically wounded by wars, criminality, and sexual or gender-based violence. More than 40 million people are displaced by violence, including 26 million refugees. If we do not take measures to change our current course, there’s no guarantee that these trends will improve in the next decade. However, if measures are taken to reverse these trends, we could save, literally, hundreds of thousands of lives and billions of dollars in reconstruction, repairs, productivity losses and insurance claims.
The first step towards effectively reducing violence by 2030 is to develop a clear understanding of how it is distributed in time and space. Take the case of lethal violence. There is a common misconception that more people are violently killed in war zones than in countries at peace.
The second step is to determine where the violence is concentrated and who is most at risk from it. A sizeable quota of all violence (deaths, injuries and rape) is concentrated in our cities.
The third step is to recognise the risk factors that lead to different types of violence. Although violence is a multifactoral problem, some recurrent risks stand out. Social and economic inequality, for example.
Reducing violence by 50% over the next ten years will require unprecedented levels of global cooperation. But there are good reasons for optimism. For the first time, the UN and the World Bank have united behind a common framework for preventing conflicts. UN organisations like the United Nations Office on drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the World Health Organisation (WHO) have committed to reducing violence. UN Women has announced a spotlight initiative to end violence against women, and UNICEF has joined forces with others to extend the reach of the INSPIRE strategies and help governments improve safety for all. Another promising initiative is the global campaign to end violence against children, which has already raised close to 38 million dollars.
A group of members of El Salvador’s Legislative Assembly is analysing a law that could that could allow for the identification of people who belong to the youth gangs Mara Salvatrucha -MS13- Barrio 18.
This would involve a blueprint for a special law to record illegal groups and terrorist organisations, their members and collaborators. This blueprint is being studied by parliament members of the Commission of Public Security and to Combat Narco-Activities.
Moreover, Congress explained that this initiative aims to identify and classify the members of youth gangs with the help of information provided by the intelligence organism of the State and police force, which allow for the disassembling and dismantling of such criminal structures.
The law would provide the State with an administrative tool to combat the country’s main security problem in a comprehensive way.
This blueprint will be presented to the authorities of the Justice and Security Cabinet and the public prosecutor, Raúl Melara, so that the object and the scope of such legislation can be known and, once approval has been given, parliament members can issue a favourable opinion so that it can be voted on in a plenary session and, as the case may be, be passed.
Once the law is passed, the legislative organ, via the members of the Commission of Public Security, will request the derogation of the proscription law for maras, youth gangs, groups, associations and organisations of a criminal nature, passed in 2010, because it is considered to be inapplicable.
The El Salvador authorities blame groups MS13, Barrio 18 and other smaller ones for the high homicide rates. It is necessary to add that, over the last five years, the figure of 103 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants has been reached, data that means that the country is one of the most violent in the world.
These criminal groups, a phenomenon considered to be a legacy of the civil war (1980-1992) and that gained emphasis with the deportation of members from the United States, have resisted all the security plans implemented by the last four administrations.
In El Salvador, about 25% of the population acknowledges having been an extortion victim of members of youth gangs.
The Canadian federal agency responsible for defending the rights of women and ensuring the application of the Status of Women Canada law. As such, this agency promotes gender equality and the total participation of women in the economic, social, cultural and political life of the country. The Status of Women Canada acts in three areas: the improvement in economic autonomy and wellbeing of women, the elimination of systematic violence against women and children and advances in women’s rights.
With this purpose, it develops and directs gender studies, promotes their application in the sphere of federal government, and sponsors research that provides a gender dimension to programme and policy agendas.
This is the case of the education information programme that the Canadian Agency of Women is putting into operation involving school practices that favour programmes for healthy relationships and the prevention of partner violence in the country’s schools. Among the specific objective concerning inclusivity, as well as the vision through gender lenses promoted by this educational programme for the country’s younger population, mainly focused on primary and secondary schools, there are the following:
Programmes include mixed audiences and different communities and may require specific focuses.
Similarly, programmes that include students with special needs, for example, meaning that the material is accessible to students with sight or hearing impairments, guarantee that all students meet all the objectives set by the programme.
Programmes that use the LGBTQ and alternative gender language, and propose scenarios or role-plays that demonstrate the different factors involved in violence in LGBTQ relationships, also guarantee that all students can identify with the programme and, therefore, also meet the objectives of the results.
Programmes that have separate components for girls and boys and offer the opportunity to regroup and debate what is important for boys and girls are the most successful.
Similarly, programmes that have co-facilitators who are both male and female are better received by the young, as they feel better represented and have more possibilities to express themselves.
Although separated-by-gender programmes may be useful, a gender analysis is important in all programmes, especially with regard to the underlying causes of gender inequality, in order to address the fact that women are more likely to be mistreated, the concept of consent and the benefits of healthy and equal relationships.
LGBTQ students also either have to be represented, with the gender identity of facilitators or with the language and materials used, the scenarios addressed, etc.
These are the desired intrinsic objectives to be incorporated in curricular programmes in schools in Canada, promoting forums for reflection for boys and girls, as well as generating an atmosphere of integration and normalisation of social stereotypes that are now obsolete, in order to try to create a bright future for the country’s future generations with the creation of a support network during childhood.