Europeans spend an estimated €30 billions on the retail drug market each year

DROGUES EUROPOLThe expenditure makes the drug market a major source of income for organised crime gangs in the European Union. This figure appears in Europol’s 2019 EU Drug Markets Report, published by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Addiction (EMCDDA) and Europol. Around two-fifths of this total, 39%, is spent on cannabis, 31% on cocaine, 25% on heroin and 5% on amphetamines and MDMA.

The report studies trends in the supply chain from production and trafficking to distribution and sales. It describes how the drug market has wide-ranging repercussions for both health and security and how a holistic approach is vital for effective drug control policies.

The latest statistics show how the overall availability of drugs in Europe continues to be extremely high and that consumers have access to a wide variety of highly pure, incredibly potent drugs at lower or unchanged prices. One of the significant cross-cutting themes of the report is the environmental impact of drug production, including deforestation and the dumping of chemical waste, which are ecologically harmful and incur security risks and elevated clean-up costs.

The report highlights the growing importance of Europe, both as a target market and as a drug-producing region, and explains how the violence and corruption which has long existed in traditional drug-producing countries, is now increasingly evident in the EU. The document analyses the many consequences of the illicit drugs market, one of which is its negative impact on society, which can be seen in gang violence, drug-related homicides and the strain it places on public institutions.

It also explores the drug industry’s links to a wide range of other types of criminal activity, such as human trafficking and terrorism, as well as the negative repercussions for the legal economy, including how the laundering of drug profits causes problems for legitimate businesses.

The report expresses concern about the increased diversification of maritime drug-trafficking methods and the misuse of general aviation, including private planes and drones, for criminal purposes. The use of post and parcel services for drug trafficking is also rapidly expanding, following the increasing trend for shopping online in Europe, and the rise in the number of parcel deliveries as a result.

The surface web and the darknet, as well as social networks, messenger services and mobile apps, are all used as platforms to sell drugs online. And while the darknet market continues to be resilient, increasing numbers of online shops and vendors catering to specific nationalities or language groups have also appeared. Illegal firearms, encrypted smartphones and fraudulent documents are some of the key tools increasingly used in drug trafficking.

The report contains an in-depth analysis of each of the most popularly used drugs in Europe:

  • Cannabis: the largest drug market in Europe, with some 25 million Europeans (15-64 years), having used the drug in the past year. The report illustrates that, while cannabis herb and resin still dominate, cannabis products in Europe are increasingly diverse.
  • Heroin and other opioids: serious health risks and heroin derivative problems. The use of opioids still accounts for the largest share of drug-related harms, including deaths, associated with drug use in the EU.
  • Cocaine: record production levels and expanding markets. The cocaine market is the second-largest illicit drug market in the EU, with an estimated minimum retail value of €9.1 billion.
  • Amphetamine, methamphetamine and MDMA – large-scale production in Europe for internal consumption and exportation: they account for around 5% of the total drug market in the EU, with an estimated retail value of at least €1 billion for amphetamine and methamphetamine, and €0.5 billion for MDMA.
  • New psychoactive substances: slow-down in the number of new detections but substances are potent and present a severe health threat. NPAs are diverse substances which are not subject to international drug controls.

With an ever more complex, adaptable and dynamic drug market, the report underlines the need for the EU’s policies and responses to be equally agile, adaptive and cohesive.

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Argentina’s dark figure of unreported crimes

Policia_Metropolitana_-_Buenos_Aires_-_ArgentinaAll countries invariably endeavour to understand trends and patterns in criminal activity. Citizens’ crime reports are a country’s primary source of information on violence and crimes, and therefore form the basis for public safety policy-making. In Argentina, however, there is considerable concern about the reliability of those figures.

The concern is because only a small number of crimes are reported and registered by the authorities. And it’s well-known that, for various reasons, many crimes are not included in the national crime statistics.

The term used to describe offences that are committed but, for many different reasons, never recorded by the authorities is the dark figure of crimes. And it’s the existence of this dark figure which prevents the authorities from obtaining an accurate overall picture of criminal activity. The problem is particularly severe in less developed countries, which have the lowest reporting rates.

And while there is an individual dark figure for each type of crime and context, it’s believed that, on average, almost 70% of crimes go unreported. This number could be as high as 90% for certain types of more widespread crimes, such as minor property infringements, gender abuse, domestic abuse, and offences relating to corruption and drug trafficking.

In Argentina, 62.6% of offences go unreported. This figure has profound implications for policy-making designed to prevent and control the crime rate. It’s because of this that victimisation surveys play such a crucial role.

When the number of unreported crimes for each type of criminal activity is analysed, a clear correlation between the type of crime and the dark figure associated with it can be identified. While the dark figure for vehicle theft is lower than 20%, other crimes have a dark figure of more than 50%.

The motivation to report a crime is related to the reporter’s expectation that the perpetrator will be punished, damage repaired, or stolen possessions recovered.

The main reasons behind people choosing not to report a crime are: a lack of confidence in the authorities’ ability to solve the problem (34.6%); because they would rather try to solve the problem themselves (24.6%); a downplaying of the significance of the offence (20.5%); a lack of evidence (14.7%); and the fear of reprisals or shame (5.5%). 6.4% of people consulted said they chose not to report the crime because it was too complicated, or they were unsure how to do it.

Taking these reasons into account, we can understand why victims of the theft of an expensive item, such as a vehicle, are more predisposed towards taking official action to restore or retrieve it. Moreover, if the item is insured, a police report is a formal requirement for recuperating the value of the stolen good.

Victims of crimes considered to be less serious or with less probability of damage compensation, such as personal theft, or crimes such as threats, bribery, sexual offences, etc., that for various motives tend not to be reported to the authorities, are less likely to report them.

Less than half (46.6%) of people who report a crime to the authorities are satisfied or very satisfied with how the relevant authority handled that report.

http://www.seguridadciudadana.org.ar/

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Colombia’s first survey on citizen coexistence and security

ColombiaThe Survey on Citizen Coexistence and Security in Colombia provides information on people aged 15 years or over, who have been personally affected by criminal activities such as theft, fights, or extortion. The survey also explores people’s perceptions of their safety.

For the first time, Colombia has conducted a nationwide victimisation survey that also covers victimisation in rural areas during the 2018 reference period.

The National Administrative Department for Statistics, DANE, published the results of the Survey on Citizen Coexistence and Security (ECSC), which compiles information from a representative sample of 128,998 people aged 15 or over, from 39,712 households

According to the results of the Survey on Citizen Coexistence and Security, in 2018, 15.6% of Colombians aged 15 or over were victims of at least one crime.

In the year 2018, victimisation prevalence in Colombia was higher for men aged 15 or over (16.9%) than for women aged 15 years or over (14.3%).

Of particular significance is the fact that in Colombia, during 2018, 71.3% of people aged 15 or over who were victims of a crime did not report it to the relevant authorities.

Of the 3% of Colombian households to report a robbery at their residence in 2018, 68.4% of them lived in a house, while 29.8% lived in a flat.

It should also be noted that 7.3% of people aged 15 or over were victims of theft, and 41.8% of those were between 15 and 29 years old. In relation to gender, 7.6% of the total number of men aged 15 or over said they had been a victim of theft in 2018; the corresponding figure for women was 7%.

34.5% of burglaries occurred between 12 midday and 6 p.m., and the most stolen personal item was the mobile phone at 75.9%.

22.9% of Colombians aged 15 or over said they owned at least one vehicle –car, motorcycle, bicycle, or agricultural vehicle– and of these, 8.7% said that either the entire vehicle, a part of it, or an accessory was stolen. 62.5% of victims said that a part or an accessory was stolen, and 37.5% declared that the entire vehicle was taken. In 38.4% of cases, the theft of the vehicle occurred between 12 midday and 6 p.m.

1.5% of people aged 15 years or over reported that they had been involved in a fight involving physical violence, and of these, 54.4% were young people between 15 and 29 years of age. By gender, 2% of all the men surveyed had been involved in a fight, while the corresponding statistic was 1.1% for women.

2.2% of people aged 15 and over said they had been the victim of extortion or attempted extortion in Colombia during 2018. In the case of 92.2% of those victims, the extortionist contacted the victim by telephone, and in 43.4% of those cases, the victim was threatened with their own safety.

For the whole of Colombia, the question about whether people aged 15 or over feel safe in different public spaces revealed that 48% of people felt most unsafe on the streets, followed by 42.9% of people who felt most unsafe on public transport.

With regard to the different cities and the perception of safety in those cities (whether people generally felt safe in their city), Bogotá and Cartagena were the cities whose residents felt most unsafe, with their percentages at 84% and 73.9% of respectively.

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Cybercrime is becoming bolder

Europol’s 2019 cybercrime report provides insights into emerging threats and key developments, highlighting the fact that cybercrime is continuing to mature and becoming increasingly bold, shifting its focus to larger, more profitable targets as well as new technologies. Data is a key element of cybercrime, both from a crime and research perspective.

Cross-cutting cybercrime phenomena
1. Data is at the centre of the crime scenes. Cybercriminals target data for their crimes, so data security and consumer awareness are paramount for organisations.

  1. Cybercrime is maturing and becoming increasingly bold, shifting its focus to larger, more lucrative targets.

Main trends outlined by the 2019 report on cybercrime
1. Ransomware remains the top cybercrime threat in 2019.

  1. DDoS attacks: the use of ransomware to deny an organisation access to its data is a significant threat.
  2. Data overload in fighting child sexual exploitation material: the amount of online material detected by the police and the private sector continues to increase. This increase puts considerable strain on the resources of investigators. One of the most worrying developments is the online sexual exploitation of minors. Deepfake technology is a technique that places images or video over another video.
  3. Self-generated explicit material is more and more common, driven by an increasing number of minors with access to high-quality smartphones.
  4. Smart cities: the most visible ransomware attacks in 2019 were those against local governments, specifically, in the United States.
  5. The police are increasingly responding to attacks on critical infrastructure.
  6. The Darkweb is becoming more fragmented. Some organised crime groups are also fragmenting their business through a range of online services and marketplaces, therefore presenting new challenges for investigators.
  7. Blockchain markets: as well as evading the police, criminal developers are also motivated by a need to increase the loyalty of their customer base, both in terms of anonymity and reducing the risk of scams.
  8. Business email compromise: data is once again the focus of discussions about business email compromise, which has been identified as a priority issue for both Member States and private industry. While this type of crime is not new, it is evolving rapidly. The scam exploits the way corporations do business, taking advantage of segregated company structures and internal gaps in payment verification processes.
  9. EU emergency response protocol: the coordinated response to large-scale cyber-attacks remains a key challenge to effective international cooperation in the cybersecurity ecosystem.

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Fentanyl, much more deadly than heroin

In the United States, the number of deaths from using synthetic opioids has risen from 3,000 in 2013, to more than 30,000 in 2018. In fact, synthetic opioids such as fentanyl are now responsible for twice as many deaths as heroin.

In the USA, a book [1] offering a systematic assessment of the past, present, and possible future of synthetic opioids in the United States, has been released. The book is rooted in the analysis of secondary data, literature reviews, international case studies, and interviews with key informants. The goal is to provide decision-makers, researchers, the media, and members of the public with insights intended to improve their understanding of the synthetic-opioid problem and how to respond to it.

Main conclusions

Fentanyl and other synthetic opioids dominate some regional drug markets in Canada and the eastern United States.
The spread of Fentanyl can be explained more by supply-side factors than by an increase in demand. These issues include the online dissemination of new and more efficient synthesis methods, anonymous e-commerce operators, etc.

In some markets, fentanyl is replacing – not just altering or supplementing – heroin.
The spread of synthetic opioids is a result of supplier decisions rather than user demand.
Despite substantial differences in their drug policies and public health services, the problem in some parts of Canada is as acute as in the east of the United States.
Fentanyl’s spread is episodically quick and persistent.
The synthetic-opioid problem will likely get worse.
The synthetic-opioid problem in the USA has yet to reach a national scale. Some western regions of Mississippi have been less affected until now.

Recommendations

It’s imperative that efforts be made to prevent synthetic opioids from becoming entrenched in parts of the country that have been only moderately affected.
Policymakers must innovate in places where synthetic opioids are produced. New approaches to dealing with the crisis must be given serious consideration (for example, disrupting online transactions, supervised consumption locations, new evidence-based treatments such as heroin-based treatment, analysis of drug contents). The nature and scale of the challenge presented by synthetic opioids, which, in their current forms and distribution methods represent a departure from previous crisis, make these actions necessary. In fact, the solution to this crisis may lie in approaches and technologies that do not exist today.
Governments have a unique responsibility to fund data-collection and the monitoring of drug sales and usage.  The HIV / AIDS crisis prompted substantial investment in new data and monitoring systems, such as the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System. The number of opioid-related deaths is roughly similar to that at the peak of the HIV / AIDS epidemic, but there has been no comparable investment in improving existing drug control systems.

[1] The future of Fentanyl and Other Synthetic Opioids by Bryce Pardo, Jirka Taylor, Jonathan P. Caulkins, Beau Kilmer, Peter Reuter, Bradley D. Stein.

https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR3117.html

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One in four Germans have been victims of internet crime

The German Federal Office for Information Security (https://www.bsi.bund.de/DE/Home/home_node.html) has published the results of an online survey completed in April 2019 by 2000 people aged between16 and 69 years old[1]. 24% of respondents claimed to have been the victim of internet crime. 29% of respondents felt that the risk of falling victim to a digital crime was “high” or “very high”.

36% claimed to have been victims of fraud while shopping online, 28% of phishing, 26% of viruses or Trojans, 18% of identity theft, 13% of extortion software, and 13% of cyber-mobbing. Some respondents claimed they had been the victim of several types of crime.

61% of respondents stated that they were using antivirus programmes, 58% secure passwords, 52% firewalls, 36% immediately installed software updates, 32% regularly changed their passwords, and 19% used encrypted email services (respondents were able to select multiple answers). As a consequence of this reality, 73% searched for information on internet security. 24% visited the Federal Office for Information Security’s website, and 47% visited police websites. Only 34% said they hadn’t heard about those websites.

The age-group most likely to report a crime to the police is 60-69 years (41%) and 50-59 years (40%), with people from 16 to 29 years and 30 to 39 years the least likely to do so (23%). The group that keeps itself most informed about the internet is 50 to 59-year-olds (38% regularly and 40% when a problem arises) and 60 to 69-year-olds (37% and 38%). The subject most people searched for information on was online banking (62%). Although the vast majority had heard about preventative measures, only a minority takes them into account and tracks them regularly (9%).

Among those that have already fallen victim to digital crime, the most frequently used protective measures are updated firewalls (50%), more secure passwords (44%), and updated antivirus programmes (40%).

[1]Vid. https://www.bsi.bund.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/BSI/Digitalbarometer/Digitalbarometer-ProPK-BSI_2019.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=3

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Extortion, violence and organised crime in Latin America

According to a recent study[1], after homicide, extortion is the second most prolific crime committed against the rule of law in Latin American and Caribbean countries. As well as being the primary source of income for maras, youth gangs, and organised crime groups, the growing number of violent deaths arising from extortion means it has now become the most significant threat to personal safety.

An example: in El Salvador, 24% of the population claims to have been the victim of extortion at some point in their lives, and in Guatemala official allegations of extortion increased by 55% between 2013 and 2018.

In recent years, some countries have taken steps to tackle extortion, attempting to resolve the problem with tougher punishments, specialist prevention programmes, the use of specialist police forces and dedicated help-lines for victims. Another measure to have gained popularity is the blocking of mobile phone signals in prisons. This is because in some countries up to 70% of extortions are organised from behind prison walls.

Given that extortion has such a devastating effect on both the peaceful coexistence of a population and its economy, the study makes a series of recommendations for their prevention and control:

  • Push for police modernisation and incentivise the social rehabilitation of inmates. Streamline police and judiciary systems to ensure improved safety for citizens.
  • Encourage the development of joint public and private partnerships such as the one that exists between the sugar production industry and the El Salvador National Police. By doing this the police have been able to obtain transport and communications equipment.
  • Dedicate more resources to finding technical ways to control extortion. For example, Mexico has a mobile application that identifies calls placed from prisons.
  • Extend regional exchanges on good practice for extortion control to speed the sharing of programmes and solutions.
  • Consolidate control mechanisms for extortion cases involving civil servants. Especially in cases where civil servants demand money from citizens to carry out specific administrative proceedings.
  • Generate attractive professional alternatives for members of youth gangs. For example, community centres that organise activities aimed at preventing the recruitment of young people in high-risk neighbourhoods.
  • Provide incentives for small and medium businesses not to deal in cash. In Guatemala it has been found that most proceeds obtained from extortion are invested in businesses, buses, taxis, and bars.
  • Encourage the victims of extortion to undertake criminal procedures by providing them with all the necessary protection guarantees in order to increase the number of official complaints and convictions.

[1] A Criminal Culture: Extortion in Central America.

https://blogs.iadb.org/es/inicio/

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Uneven distribution of homicides in the world

The global homicide study of the UNODC(1) shows that the number of homicides continues to rise, although rates are going down due to the rise in population. In 1990, 362,000 cases were detected and in 2017, 463,821. The study deals with illegal intentional homicides(2) that have been committed in the world until 2017.

If we focus on continental data, a great impact is stressed in the two Americas that, according to 2017 figures, concentrate 37% of homicides with a mere 13% of the world’s population. The global rate of 17.2% per hundred thousand amounts to an overall record since 1990, which is the first year that reliable data was used. Venezuela, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Mexico, Colombia and Brazil are the countries with the highest rates.

The second continent on the list is Africa with 13 per hundred thousand, but care must be taken with these figures as there are doubts about their reliability. Apart from America, only South Africa reaches maximum levels. Europe has experienced a drop of 68% since 2002 and 38% since 1990, amounting to 22,009, a rate of 3 per hundred thousand, leading Oceania (2.8 per hundred thousand) and Asia (2.3 per hundred thousand)(3)

Most homicides (54%) were committed with firearms (the main instrument used in America, with the exception of Canada, and in the Balkans), 22% were committed with a knife and 24 % using other means

The perpetrators of homicides are mainly men (90%). If we look at homicide in terms of criminal convictions, only 6% of those convicted were women. In Europe the figure reaches 9%, whereas in the Americas it is 7%, and in Asia, 6%, and in Africa, 5%. Regarding the victims, they are usually men (81%), with the most affected age group being the one between 15 and 29 (basically due to the American reality), although in Europe the most affected age group is between 30 and 44. Women are their partner’s victims (34%), of other members of the family (24 %) and in 42 % of cases, people who are not part of the family context, meaning that the inner and family circle is the most dangerous for them. If we focus on cases involving couples, 82% of the victims are women. Another noteworthy piece of data is that, the higher the number of homicides, the bigger the percentage of male victims.

The report refers to contexts that may facilitate violence and, consequently, an increase in homicide. At the same time, it flouts traditional stereotypes in this area. More specifically, it states:

  • Socioeconomic development (or a lack of this) explains the levels of homicide in Europe and Asia, but is more difficult to explain per in the Americas and Asia. Organised crime, political instability and the availability of firearms are crucial factors in these continents. However, organised crime (and drug trafficking) do not always generate high homicide rates.
  • Inequality in terms of standard of living and distribution of wealth. Countries with the highest rates of economic inequality are the ones with the highest rates of homicides.
  • Long-term investment and educational policies are associated with a drop in homicide rates.
  • Improvements in the rule of law is key to reducing homicide rates.
  • Urban growth does not seem, in itself, to cause an increase in homicide.
  • Police officers can be both a source of violence and its victims.
  • Emigrants are predominantly killed by other emigrants.
  • In some countries (Chile, El Salvador, Argentina, Panama, Honduras, Botswana and Montenegro) prisons are places where a higher risk of being a homicide victim is detected.

[1] Vid. https://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/gsh/Booklet1.pdf

[2] They have no legal protection, which could be a jusifying cause or constitute a conviction in a country that applies capital punishment.

[3] Àsia experiences four times more homicides than Europe, 104,456, but has six times its population.

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Assaults of a racist, xenophobic and anti-religious nature in France in 2018

For the last twenty-five years, the French National Consultative Commission on Human Rights (CNCDH) has sent the government a report on the state of racism, antisemitism and xenophobia in the country. The report is developed on the basis of several sources, which may be official, like records from the Ministry of the Interior or the Ministry of Justice and the Security Survey, and also data provided by international associations and researchers. In April, a report referring to last year was presented.

In 2018, the Police and Gendarmerie services recorded 5,170 crimes related to ethnicity, nation, a particular race or religion. This figure represents a drop for a third consecutive year in this type of offences (between 2015 and 2016 there was a 20% drop, between 2016 and 2017, it was 11% and between 2017 and 2018, it was 4%). On the other hand, there was an increase in the more serious offences.

The data shows a big territorial disparity; over 60% of the victims of this nature of crime recorded by security forces have suffered such offences in the Paris area (29%) or another large urban conurbation of over 200,000 inhabitants (33%).

As far as the victims are concerned, in 2018 security forces recorded 4,840 victims of offences of a “racist nature”, of which 57% were men. The age group with most victims is between 25 and 54 (over 70%) and foreign victims amount to 20%, emphasising that 15% were from an African country.

However, it must be borne in mind that the data from police records merely represent a small portion of the «racist nature» crimes taking place, as not all victims report the offences. For this reason, data from the crime survey “Life and Security Framework”. According to this survey, during the 2012-2017 period, only 1 victim of “racist” insults out of 50 and 1 victim of «racist» threats or physical violence out of 6 stated that they had reported the incident to the police. According to this survey, in 2017, in France 1.1 million people of 14 years of age or over (1 out of 45) were victims of at least one assault of a “racist nature”.

The survey also displayed a higher frequency than in other groups of assaults committed by a group and in a public space or open to the public.

The report also refers to the Longitudinal Tolerance Rate (LTR), created in 2008 by Professor Vincent Tiberj. This is an indicator that synthesises with responses to a series of questions concerning racism or rejection of others; a rate of around 100 shows a high level of tolerance and the opposite reflects a weak tolerance level. In 2018, the tolerance level was 67, which means a 2-point rise in comparison with 2017. This evolution is not a one-off as it follows the upward trend over recent years, as between 2013 and 2018, the rate has advanced 13 points, a highly exceptional and remarkable variation in a context in which the terrorist threat and the question of welcoming refugees has been at the centre of public debate.

Links of interest

https://www.cncdh.fr/sites/default/files/les_essentiels_-_rapport_racisme_2016_1.pdf

https://www.interieur.gouv.fr/Interstats/Actualites/Les-atteintes-a-caractere-raciste-xenophobe-ou-antireligieux-en-2018-Interstats-Analyse-N-20

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The greater complexity of the terrorist threat in 2018

The terrorist phenomenon continued to represent an important security threat for the European Union in 2018. This is what is explained in the latest report published by Europol – Europol’s 2019 EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report (TE-SAT) –which considers that the level of the terrorist threat has become more complex rather than decreasing.

In the sum of the terrorist attacks, thirteen people died and dozens were injured. With these figures and compared with 2017, the number of attacks and victims fell significantly with the number of terrorist groups being investigated and detained in the EU increasing.

The report on trends in the EU related to the situation and evolution of terrorism in 2018, is a document required by the European Parliament that offers a concise vision of the nature of the terrorist threat facing the EU.

Among the main trends stressed by the document are the following:

–       All terrorist attacks were of a Jihadist nature, committed by lone individuals and against the civil population.

–       The mental health problems of some perpetrators contributed to the complexity of the phenomenon. Jihadist attacks were carried out using firearms or non-sophisticated weapons that were easily accessible like knives.

–       The level of the terrorist threat throughout the EU continues to be high due to, among other factors, the significant number of attacks that were thwarted, and the 16 Jihadist terrorist groups arrested.

–       Three terrorist groups intercepted by the police in 2018 included the attempt to produce and/or use chemical and biological explosives and materials. An increase in the use of pyrotechnic mixes to produce explosive devices was also detected.

–       A general increase in propaganda and CBRN terrorist threats.

–       While minors are essentially victims, there is concern in member states of the EU as to whether they have been exposed to indoctrination and training and, therefore, have become a potential threat.

–       There is a concern as to why people with a criminal or prison record are vulnerable to indoctrination and can participate in terrorist activities.

–       The member states of the EU thinks that it is likely that the reduction in the territorial control of Islamic State will be substituted by an increase in Al Qaida efforts to recover power and influence.

–       While online propaganda remained technologically advanced and software pirates seem to have knowledge of encoded communication tools, the capacities and techniques of cyber-attacks from the groups were rudimentary.

–       In 2018, there was no terrorist group that displayed a capacity to carry out effective cyber-attacks.

–       The report also offers a general vision of the terrorist situation outside the EU, including conflict areas Like Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya and Syria.

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