The homicide rate rises again in Colombia

After a continual fall over seven years regarding homicides, in 2018 there was a setback for murder prevention policies, according to Ministry of Defence figures and from the foundation Ideas for Peace (FIP).

According to a report published by the Ministry of Defence, in 2018 a total of 12,311 people were murdered in Colombia. This means about 500 homicides more than in 2017 when 11,831 people were murdered, about 4% more.

Of the total, 3,780 (30.34%) took place in a rural environment and the rest, 8,678 (69.66%) in urban areas.

The most worrying aspect is that according to official data, only 189 people were arrested and deprived of freedom as authors of a homicide and another 102 were taken to court for having connections with a murder.

To address this increase in homicides, authorities suggest an increase in pressure and control in 4 or 5 municipalities of the Bajo Cauca, Tumaco and “la Comuna 13” of Medellín.  But this strategy of focusing on critical areas contrasts with the report of the FIP which states that although giving priority to some territories is important, other territories cannot be overlooked as they may become areas with a high homicide rate.

Moreover, on the part of the FIP it is considered that the increase in homicides responds to several causes and modalities: the incidence of homicides involving knives, the increase in violent deaths of adults, and the existence of 24 municipalities where only women have died violently, implies a differential response in order to control such a phenomenon.

On the part of another association, the Development and Peace Programmes Network (Prodepaz), the consultant Luis Eduardo Celis believes that the departure of the ex-guerrillas from the FARC from the armed conflict avoided between 500 and 800 homicides a year. But in 2018 multiple causes cropped up:

  • The continuation of the conflict and the illegal incomes dispute, as well as the lack of a rule of law that works all over the territory. There are 150 critical municipalities and zones where the conflict is more intense.
  • The partition of land that affects social leaders and public policies to deal with issues related to conflict and insecurity on the part of the region generated the increase in homicide in Colombia.
  • The lack of public tolerance in order to manage conflict, added to social leaders that supported a peace process that has not achieved the expected results neither in terms of cultivation nor in terms of land restitution.
  • The lack of academic and professional opportunities for the young continues to make the population vulnerable to be drawn into mafias and illegal armed groups.

The Ministry stresses that it is necessary to make steady advances in equity policies, that there are many urban conflicts where security and peace strategies have to focus on each region in order to distinguish its current situation, and finally actions involving peace and coexistence strategies are required.

As Eduardo Celis sees it, in Colombia, there is very strong culture of indifference because of the long-term armed conflict and this has generated a culture-based complicity.

Links of interest

https://www.fiscalia.gov.co/colombia/

https://www.rcnradio.com/judicial/homicidios-en-colombia-aumentaron-en-2018-dice-fiscalia

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Efforts from different sectors to combat phishing

At the end of March this year, Europol  hosted a joint meeting of the advisory groups of The European Cyber Crime Centre-EC3- about financial services, Internet and communications security suppliers, where they met with representatives of the industry to discuss the cybernetic threat posed by phishing.

Phishing is a persistent cyber criminal threat to data protection, used by everyone, from basic criminals to very sophisticated competitors.

Over the two days, global financial institutions, internet security companies and telecommunications suppliers shared information about the phishing that affects their respective industries and what can be done together with law enforcement agencies to combat this type of cyber crime.

The meetings also relied on basic observations related to phishing and automatic learning and an email service for companies, as well as group debates about possible solutions to this problem. Focusing on operative, technical, awareness-raising solutions, operatives to mitigate phishing, police agents and experts from the industry presented a series of recommendations and conclusions related to what can be done collectively:

  • Improve information exchange between industries, as well as with law enforcement agencies and other organisations from the pertinent public sector.
    • Implement basic concepts of secure authentication, a black list of domains and a blockade of common exploitations.
    • Train and educate users permanently and not as a sole force.
    • Adopt innovation such as automatic learning to automatically detect phishing emails.
    • Regularly review anti-phishing measures to stay up-to-date with criminals that are constantly evolving.

This transversal Europol forum is a unique meeting of assessment groups of security, banking and Internet infrastructures aiming to improve awareness and share the best cyber security practices.

EC3 established the Advisory Groups for Financial Services, Internet Security and Communications Suppliers to encourage trust and cooperation between the main industries of the private sector and police authorities in their joint fight against cyber criminals.

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Clara Luz Flores Carrales: “It is necessary to systemise and professionalise corporations”

Municipal President of Escobedo, Nuevo León, México. She has a degree in Legal Sciences awarded by the Universidad Regiomontana and a Master’s qualification in Administrative Law from the University of Zaragoza, Spain.

 She has performed as a lecturer regarding Public Security and has participated in several courses involving Advanced Public Management.

A very noteworthy highlight of her career is the fact that she was one of the first female mayors to be re-elected in Mexico. Over different periods, she has been elected on three occasions as Municipal President of General Escobedo, Nuevo León.

She has been recognised by the National Conference of Municipal Public Security, as the Escobedo Security Model was selected for implementation all over Mexico, as a source of strategies for the prevention and reduction of violence, and the elimination of “criminal factories”.

What makes a person like you, with a solid social position, decide to concentrate her political activity on the fight against crime, violence and extortion, even to the extent that your life is continually put at risk (and that of a descendant)?

I believe that as citizens we must stand firm and act so that our environment can be a better one, and that we need to reject apathy and be proactive. And that’s why my conviction is participate, from my position, in an environment with a quality of life, peace and calm for my family, for my neighbours, for my community, for my state and, of course, for my country.

You are, at this moment, a real authority in the field of Public Security policies, but not only in your state, Nuevo León, but all over Mexico, as you have been appointed President of the National Conference of Security. What do you think your security strategy has that makes it appear to be an alternative, perhaps even a source of hope for security policies all over Mexico?

For me, the key is that this approach aims to get to the root of the insecurity problem: to prevent our children and young from seeing the criminal pathway as an alternative and, moreover, our strategy is comprehensive and bears in mind factors such as prevention, protecting people’s physical activity and their belongings based on analysis and investigation, focusing on social justice with the police force being trusted by the general public

No important person in the field of security questions the great work being done by General Lara as he completely transforms the Escobedo police force, bring it closer to the public and also more efficient when fighting crime. However, some are rather disappointed that your regarded turning to a high-ranking soldier to be the only solution to the Escobedo security problem. What would you say to these critics?

I would tell them that the incorporation of a soldier to conduct the secretariat took place in a context of extreme violence. From that outset, the strategy and the skills of police chiefs and their leaders have evolved with training and courses, meaning that the corporation is now a different one from top to bottom.

Another reason for taking this decision is that military training and its steely discipline results in ordered individuals who are driven by conviction to perform the tasks that they are assigned. Moreover, people have different learning capacities and potential to evolve and, in the case of the general, he already has a combination of police officer and soldier given the interdependent nature they each have.

From your double vantage point (mayor of Escobedo and president of the national Conference of Security), how do you feel about Mexico’s future in terms of security? What needs to happen to reverse the growing, in recent years, escalation of violence that is hitting the country? What formulas need to be applied at a federal level to add to such positive experiences like the one you have steered at a municipal level? Is the new National Guard a solution?

Corporations need to be systemised and professionalised, with processes and procedures being assessed on a regular basis, which is what has worked for us. Implementing an appropriate model in each municipality is vital because if the municipality assumes its responsibility a virtuous cycle will be created where each municipality, followed by the state and the Federation, which incidentally is aware and accepts this, work in order to redress this problem.

I think steps are being taken in the right direction to get out of this spiral. I am convinced that the model of municipal police force that is to be implemented in the country such as programmes to stop family and social violence have the necessary experience and methodological elements to achieve this.

The guard is one of the elements that is part of a group of actions that must be articulated on the part of municipalities as a model for a municipal police force and skills development.

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Are programmes that analyse security data in Los Angeles effective?

One of the current trends in terms of security is the wish to predict crime by using computer programmes that draw on data, mainly lawsuits. There are more and more police forces that are doing tests with such systems or are implementing them, but rather than the actual launching of these programmes, the most interesting aspect is assessing results and the analysis obtained by such an assessment. In this blog we have previously emphasised two experiences in France and Germany and, on this occasion, we add another from the USA.

Los Angeles Police Commission

The Los Angeles Police Department published, in March 2019, a report with a review of the application of three programmes of data-guided police action. In summer 2018, after a meeting during which some associations had revealed their concerns that these systems were generating among the general public the Board of Police Commissioners[1] of the city of Los Angeles commissioned the Office of the Inspector General [2] to study the matter and the report is the outcome of this.

The first of the programmes analysed is the so-called LASER (acronym of Los Angeles Strategic Extraction and Restoration –, and it involved two complementary actions: a system to assess and monitor chronic offenders based on scores that were reviewed periodically, and a strategy to detect hot spots where patrolling had to be prioritised.

The review of the LASER project has been quite critical, both regarding the chronic offender programme, and the locating of hot spots. It reveals problems due to the nature of assessment, discrepancies between initial objectives and those that follow with implementation, a lack of training material, differences in how the different areas execute the programme’s actions and difficulties to confirm effectiveness. And between the deficiencies of each of the two actions the most noteworthy are the lack of monitoring of people involved in the system of chronic offenders or the localising of hot spots near the very infrastructures of the police department and the time the patrols spent on these premises, being computed as patrols in these areas.

The second system analysed is Predpol, one of the most popular crime prediction programmes. It is based on historic data regarding crime and applies an algorithm to calculate the areas where a crime is most likely to be committed at a moment in time. Los Angeles police department only uses it to predict places where vehicles could be stolen or broken into, and there are 12-hour time bands. The review carried out by the inspector general’s office, was based on the patrolling implications rather than the functioning of the system of prediction and stresses that, on the one hand, results were contradictory in terms of the time dedicated to patrolling and the areas identified by the system and, on the other, that in most cases the areas of risk were only visited for less than a minute (meaning that the deterring effect was limited) and that the longest-lasting patrols were on police premises.

The latest programme used was ELUCD, a system that sent brief questionnaires to electronic devices (telephones, tablets or computers) based on where they were in the city of Los Angeles. Apart from some demographic questions (age, gender, race or address) it was asked if the person felt safe in his neighbourhood, if he trusted the police and if he / she felt secure with the police department. When the survey was commissioned a contract was not being considered, and this did not happen and the company did not provide the Police Department with the data gathered, and only sent some occasional weekly reports.

The report has had a certain impact on the US media (look at the footnotes) and, apart from detecting the difficulty to assess the effectiveness of the systems, has criticised the fact the effects of these programmes and systems on the general public have not been borne in mind, as this was one of the main criticisms that the study had brought about.

[1] This is the organ that that manages the Police Department, and is made up of five civilians and establishes polices and sets objectives. The head of the police manages daily operations and implements these policies and objectives.

[2]It is a service that supervises the functions of the city’s police department.

You can consult the report at:

http://www.lapdpolicecom.lacity.org/031219/BPC_19-0072.pdf

Two noteworthy news items emphasised by the report:

CNN – LAPD audit reveals dangers of high-tech policing

https://edition.cnn.com/2019/03/22/tech/lapd-audit-tech/index.html

Muckrock – Eight years in, LAPD can’t measure PredPol’s effect on crime

https://www.muckrock.com/news/archives/2019/mar/12/algorithms-lapd-predpol/

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Willy Demeyer: “Security is not down to one policy alone”

A lawyer by background, he began his political career in 1988.

From 2014 until November 2017, Willy Demeyer as a member of the federal parliament was a member of the Commission of the Interior and the Commission of Federal Surveys regarding the «terrorist attacks of 22nd March».

On 8 March 2017, the city of Liège undertook a new participative project, as an extension of the project initiated in 2003.

Being the central city of the district, Liège presides «Liège Metròpole» (District conference of the Mayors of 24 municipalities and of the District Chamber).

Liège also presides the European Forum for Urban Prevention and Security that brings together about 350 European cities to deal with urban security issues.

What do you think of European security? What are the dangers and fears? Is there a correlation?

Over recent years, the world economic context has gone through many upheavals, which have encouraged a return to protectionist theories and the emergence of populisms.

Today’s challenges to Europe are important. One of the most important is undoubtedly polarisation, which amounts to an important risk for our societies.

Other urgent problems are related to this like social and economic inequality that debilitates social cohesion, the radicalisation that leads to violent extremism. The question of migratory flows also deserves better adapted responses in terms of social integration and essential services like housing or education. Finally, the ageing issue must not be overlooked.

Certain elected officials have a huge political responsibility in the way they project Europe. This, in their opinion, is no longer an instrument to protect populations and the States, as it is more a destabilising and authoritarian element. According to them, this interferes with the free choice of the Member States and imposes guidelines on the citizens.

This discourse has important consequences on the perception that citizens have of their lives, their sense of security and their future prospects.

Faced with this phenomenon, progressively, local authorities must make the difference; define policies of prevention and security that respect democratic norms and values, stressing the principle of solidarity.

This is the position of the EFUS Manifesto, adopted in Barcelona in November 2017. It translates these evolutions and proposes a global, holistic vision of urban security.

Can cities cope with today’s security challenges? What should the role of regions and states be?

 Of course not. Security is not the result of a single policy. It is the result of the coherence of all the policies developed at the different stages.

That is why we have presented our Manifesto “Security, Democracy and Cities” to national and European institutions. Indeed, many phenomena are manifest locally, but they are transnational by nature. Therefore, they also require a worldwide response. It is necessary to involve all levels of governance.

The members of Efus present an optimistic view of security, based on respect for human rights and co-production. The Manifesto presents our commitments and recommendations on fifteen topics related to urban security, among others: prevention of violent radicalization, use of technologies in prevention, diversification of security actors …

It is a fundamental document for the Forum. It is a source of inspiration, support and help for local and regional authorities in the design and promotion of their security policy.

Europe is currently very diverse. What is the challenge to maintain urban security? Avoiding policies and situations of discrimination that can lead to violence or, as many are saying, the expulsion or the radical reduction of emigrants?

We are concerned about the persistence of social and economic inequalities. It was a challenge 30 years ago, at the time of the creation of the EFUS but, in recent years, it has become more pronounced.

The causes are multiple: diversity and fluidity of urban populations (especially migrants, tourists and city users by day and at night), as well as a lack of coherence between local, national and European policies at times.

Addressing these inequalities is essential because they spark a resentment that can lead to violence and crime. One of the most disturbing recent manifestations of this resentment is violent extremism, which adopts many forms and can cause a feeling of impotence among public authorities.

In this regard, we consider that it is essential that local and regional authorities refuse to let fear dictate their response. Even if violent extremism can give rise to a sense of urgency, we should not give in to the trap of instantaneousness: instantaneousness as a word, in terms of action and its results.

What is the role of EFUS in European urban security? To facilitate the simple exchange of experiences or promote security policies based on democratic principles and social cohesion? Is there an EFUS security model?

Local and regional authorities benefit from the trust of citizens. Due to their proximity, they have a better understanding of their expectations. They are often more agile than state institutions when it comes to establishing innovative, flexible policies and, above all, adapted to local communities.

We are increasingly recognized by international politicians. Our front-line position in the management of security, crisis situations and our ability to respond are what give us an edge.

It is encouraging but we must draw the necessary conclusions. Our powers are still too limited to fully carry out our missions. It is essential that our role be recognized in official texts. Appropriate financing mechanisms must be established. And we have to participate systematically in the national and European decision-making processes.

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Chile presents the Plan Calle Segura (Safe Street Plan) that extends preventive identity controls

The President of Chile, Sebastian Piñera, presented the so-called Plan Calle Segura to the National Congress, aimed at preventing crime in the public spaces of cities and that extends preventive identity controls and authorises it to apply it from the age of fourteen.

One of the justifications for going ahead with this plan is because it is considered that the primary concern of Chileans is crime and drug trafficking and so this must be addressed.

As part of the plan #CalleSegura an intense Agenda of Public Security was put into place, including the modernisation of the police and the investigations police service, a greater police presence in the streets with over 3,000 officers, an important investment in technology with cameras and drones and the so-called Antiportonazos Law.

This law must allow officers to carry out controls in the streets with greater ease, including the inspection of clothes, backpacks and accessories when it is appropriate to prevent, in accordance with this law, crimes more effectively. It will also involve anyone over fourteen, given that according to Chilean police statistics, between 20 and 30% of violent crime – theft with violence, ambushes, etc. – are committed by youths.

Despite the low rate of complaints for inappropriate conduct against officers during such procedures, the law also includes measures to prevent abuse and discrimination. And this law comes into being with numerous voices that have questioned the legitimacy and utility of this measure.

One of the most questioned aspects of the new law is that as part of a plan to deter criminal conduct, it is expected that technology –cameras, drones, registration plate readers…- collaborate to control crimes taking place in the street.

Accordingly, with comparative experience and what is stressed by urban criminology, the limits of such types of initiatives are explained, not only in terms of the perception of security, but also with relation to the reduction of crime in urban spaces. Therefore, opting for an investment in technology as government policy can turn out to be insufficient.

Some voices have warned defenders of the Plan Calle Segura that crime control not only involves surveillance of streets and technological control of the environment, as an appropriate and balanced planning of public spaces and cities must also be considered.

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Paul van Soomeren: “Public safety and security policies are like a clockwork pendulum”

Paul van Soomeren (1952) is founder of the Amsterdam based research and consultancy bureau DSP (www.DSP-groep.eu). Before he started – with Bram van Dijk – this bureau he worked for several year at the national Bureau of Crime Prevention in the Netherlands. Paul is worldwide expert in Crime prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED). At the moment Paul works on standardization of CPTED and he participates – with the Generalitat de Catalunia – in the EU project www.cuttingcrimeimpact.eu for the next three years.

How do you see the current trends in public security policies? Don’t you think they are too focused on punishment? Are we back in the past? Where are environmental approaches in political debates?

Public safety and security policies are like a clockwork pendulum: in the  60 and 70 is was mainly a reactive and repressive approach to crime, in the 80 and 90 it was more crime prevention and it shifted back in the new millennium. I have the impression that prevention is becoming more ‘en vogue’ again. Punishment and reactive approaches are not the most effective nor efficient. It’s an very expensive approach to crime. Of course you need two to tango: reactive approaches based on catching the criminal and punish, but also prevention. From a cost-benefit approach crime prevention is a cheaper and thus certainly a more efficient approach. Since I am Dutch I hate to see good money spoiled. In evaluations we always look at these cost-benefit differences.

Which public actor (local, regional, state, Europe) understands better the importance of urban design in order to prevent crime and build safer cities? Which of them is in a better position to enforce the principles involved in it?

It is not ‘or-or’ but ‘and-and’. Hence it is not ‘European or National or Local’. Crime Prevention through Urban Design, Planning and Management (Secured by Design/CPTED) is possible on each scale level: European, national, regional, local and last but not least the neighbourhood level. The same goes for all crime prevention approaches. The best options is when these levels really work together; support and facilitate each other. While we are used nowadays to talk about concepts like multi-agency and partnership approach, we still define this much too often horizontally at the same geographical scale level; the same governance level. It would be better to look also at this issue in a vertical way: how can for example European regulations and standards help a country? How can national laws and scheme facilitate local crime prevention actions? How can local authorities facilitate neighbourhood crime prevention. In shorts: its horizontal multi agency approaches and vertical governance cooperation. That the big + (plus)

How should the private sector (in a wide sense, not only the private security, but all those who are not public) contribute to an urban design that improves safety?

The private sector already incorporates crime prevention through design and planning. For example by making products crime proof. See the mobile phone with a track and trace function, the automated car immobilizer or in-built security in architecture and design. And of course there is also the pressure from insurance companies to diminish risks. Recent British and Dutch research showed that what they call the ‘security hypotheses’ may explain the drop of crime we are now seeing in most industrialized modern countries. This is a combination of private and public crime prevention. Often design, planning, management and cooperation are key.

Some old neighbourhoods in European cities have turned out to be degraded areas with marginalised population (usually poor migrants). Which policies should be enforced to reverse the situation? Is gentrification a solution?

As a geographer, urban planner and demographer I don’t think gentrification is a solution. Complete gentrification like the one we see in several European capital cities is not a solution it is actually causing huge problems like  segregation and lack of integration. My solution would be to mix people. Mix to the max! Maybe not house by house but groups of houses – like housing blocks – in a kind of chessboard pattern. That way the same type of people could stay together and be of mutual assistance and the whole city could still be a nice mix. Differences and diversity is what makes cities attractive but also effective. Innovation springs from diversity. In the country I live in – The Netherlands – housing associations play an important role. About one third of all houses in the Netherlands is owned by housing associations – in big cities it is even 4 out of every 10. And it is difficult to tell the difference between privately owned/rented houses and social housing. All categories of houses are mixed. That’s a very good and effective way of housing people. This is crime prevention through urban planning at its best. Not done by the police but by housing associations and local authorities.

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Ecuador adopts strong security measures in football stadiums

As of 2019, the Ecuador football championship will be managed by Liga Pro, which consists of 16 first division clubs and 10 second B clubs, with the aim of guaranteeing safe scenarios for all those who attend matches.

Among the different aspects being reviewed by the Liga Pro, the Ecuador Football Federation(FEF), The Quito Superior Technology Institute(ISTFQ) and lawyers linked to the world of sport, are that of spreading the idea of a peaceful culture between the fans of different teams, improving infrastructures and applying laws in accordance with the crime or offence committed.

One of the first security prerequisites that they aim to abide by is that the rule of sports security states that stadiums must have the minimum norms demanded by FIFA as an obligation, obviously with the perspective of continuous improvement. For example:

  • Stadiums must have emergency doors to enter the grounds placed strategically and being wider than 1 metre, 20 centimetres.
  • If there is no pit separating the terraces from the pitch, ramps will be placed at the emergency doors leading to the pitch.
  • The stadium exit doors and all the spectator areas will open outwards. It will be impossible to lock them while there is a match.
  • The stadium will have an ambulance and first aid area in case medical assistance is required.
  • Football series A stadiums will have an exterior surrounding perimeter barrier where the first security control of the public will take place with an individual search when necessary.
  • The second control will carried out at the stadium entrance.

The organism that regulates professional football in Ecuador has already inspected 13 stadiums where the top-level tournament will take place and, reviewing the results, it helped to improve the rules of the procedure. It was done in this way because the clubs’ lack of infrastructure is one of the big constraints for security regulations.

One of the points of the area of security regulations that the FEF stresses, regarding venues where this sports is practised, is that the stadium must be a safe place for all users, for spectators, those involved in the match, officials, media representatives, workers and others, including different elements of civil security.

As far as the sport’s judiciary is concerned, a critical position is maintained regarding these measures. It is considered that, rather than applying more rigorous norms inside stadiums, those that are already established should be applied and that, moreover, awareness raising activities about proper behaviour at a sports event should be carried out. This way, the fan will be aware of the risk involved if he commits a criminal act and that he can be sanctioned with already existing laws.

Furthermore, there are those who consider that more security would not be necessary in stadiums to prevent violence, as this should involve beginning to change the culture and the idea of why people go to football stadiums. This way, the preventive character of the statutes and regulations must specify parameters to prevent conflict at a sports event. Within this framework, it is believed to be important that a football match must take place within the framework of an atmosphere of safety, friendship, family and collaboration, making it pleasant for fans and without generating unrest when people attend a sports event.

Meanwhile, the ISTFQ wanted to make its contribution with the defence of safety in football stadiums, promoting the diploma in Physical Safety at Sports Events, in order to train people in terms of sports-related safety.

Links of interest

https://www.eltelegrafo.com.ec/

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Frontex, applying the latest systems to combat document forgery

The European Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex, 2004) helps member states of the EU and associate countries of the Schengen Area to administer their exterior borders and contribute to harmonise border controls between European Union countries. The Agency facilitates cooperation between the border authorities of each EU country, offering technical support and experience.

According to the EU commission on the application of the action plan to strengthen the European Union response to travel documentation, a technical report has been being prepared since April 2018 about norms for inspection systems. To support this activity, Frontex is developing a methodology to assess and analyse the performance of document inspection systems.

A key achievement is the increase in operative support from the Centre of Excellence of Frontex against the falsifying of documents, in operation since February 2018. This centre sends personnel from Frontex to in situ operations on external borders, collaborates with the exchange of information regarding document forgery and expects to create a Forgery Office to provide permanent technical and operative support for the control of documents. Moreover, it manages the Group of Experts in Document Control, with the aim of coordinating the general support given to state members for the detection of forged documents, and work in close collaboration with the horizontal group of experts in forged documents, created within the framework in the EU 2018-2021 actions cycle to break up organised crime networks involved in trafficking false and forged documents. The Centre is completing a new proposal for a normalised alerts format.

Furthermore, regarding improvements to the gathering of data concerning phenomena related to the forging of documents, Frontex maintains the Network for the analysis of risks of document forgery in the European Union -EDF-RAN – and gathers information about identities and false documents detected on external borders and movements within the Schengen/EU area.

Concerning the promotion of training activities in new areas related to document forgery, Frontex, in association with the Centre of Identification of the Eindhoven Academy (Netherlands), developed a pilot course about the recognition of identity that includes references to the management of identity, the technology of microcircuits, biometrics and the means of detection of digital fraud.

The main task of the Centre of Excellence of Frontex is to support the fight against document forgery in joint operations. The Centre of Excellence of Frontex created a new proposal in 2018 concerning the creation of a normalised alert format. Now Frontex has developed a reference manual for border guards that contains images of passports, identity cards and visas, to help to determine if the document presented is genuine or not.

On 25th March 2019 some workshops called ‘Frontex Document Olympics’ took place with experts in documentation from all over Europe participating in the first Frontex Olympic Games. The Olympics involved finding the largest amount of forged documentation per minute: participating in a pair of scenarios, including the verification of travel documents in an airport and other types of support given to irregular immigrants (like birth or marriage certificates) at a public entry point.

https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2018:0696:FIN:ES:PDF

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