Drug trafficking continues to be one of the main sources of finance for terrorism

For the western world, one of the main modern-day threats in terms of security is terrorism, a global phenomenon that cannot be controlled solely at national level, as it requires the cooperation of those governments and security forces affected. One of the greatest threats is drug trafficking, which, like the former, requires a high level of collaboration to establish policies and common legislation.

Both threats are closely related. Traditionally, drug trafficking has been one of the main sources of finance for non-state armed groups and terrorist groups. This is confirmed by the recent study World Atlas of Illicit Flows(2018),the result of collaboration between Interpol, the RHIPTO and Global Initiative against Transnational Organized Crime. As the study indicates, 4% of the illegal flow ends up in the hands of terrorist information.

According to the document, although crimes against the environment (the trafficking of coal and petroleum, the illegal exploitation of minerals, illegal forest exploitation and animal trafficking) have come to represent the primary source of finance for terrorist groups(38% of the total), trafficking continues to be the main source if we consider environmental initiatives to be independent activities. It is estimated that the income of the seven principal terrorist groups and rebel groups of the Democratic Republic of Congo are about 1,160 million dollars, 28% of which (330 million dollars) comes from activities related to drugs. The two organisations that have traditionally profited from trafficking are the Taliban, with the cultivation of opium and heroin trafficking, and the FARC, with cocaine.

In the case of the Taliban, operational in Afghanistan, the cultivation of opium has traditionally been an important source of finance. According to current data, they have average revenue of between 75 and 95 million dollars, approximately 22.9 million dollars of which, comes from activities related to the cultivation of opium, from which morphine is abstracted and from which heroin is produced. Heroin produced in Afghanistan represents about three quarters of the total production and serves to supply the entire world market. In Europe, the heroin market is the second most important drug-related market considering the amount of money it turns over, about 6.8 billion Euros a year.

Since its inception, the Armed Revolutionary Forces of Colombia, known as the FARC, regarded the cultivation of drugs (cocaine and cannabis) a counter revolutionary activity. In 1981, however, its policy changed due to the fear of alienating agricultural workers and the evident increase in finance that drug-trafficking would involve, managing to control up to 70% of the areas where cocaine was produced and therefore becoming the main actor in cocaine trafficking in the country. According to InSight Crime, a foundation dedicated to the study of organised crime in the Caribbean and Latin America, the FARC had, in 2015-2016, assets to the value of 580 million dollars, most of which (267 million dollars) came from activities related to drugs and illegal mining. Although in 2017 peace agreements began between the government and the FARC, some of its members didn’t accept these and organised themselves into dissident groups. One of these, the so-called East Block (or Oriental), has gone on to control an important part of the country’s cocaine trafficking.

According to the World Atlas, since 2015 a growth in the use two drugs has been noticed by some members of Islamic State: tramadol and phenethylamines. The first is an opioid with an analgesic function and the second a psycho-stimulant. These drugs are located especially in Syria and Iraq, but with an added presence in the Trans-Saharan area (Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Chad and Libya). Islamic State takes charge of the trafficking and selling of these two substances, both to combatants and those who are not.

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Situation and trends in the penitentiary field in the world in 2018

The report Global Prison Trends 2018 is the fourth edition of an annual study that has been elaborated with the support of the Thailand Institute of Justice and the Penal Reform International(PRI).

Penal Reform International is a non-governmental and independent organisation that develops and promotes effective and proportionate responses to criminal justice around the world.

For example, the PRI defends the use of measures and sanctions without deprivation of liberty, a method that has expanded over recent years. This way, with alternative measures to prison, the overcrowding of centres can be reduced, especially in the case of sentences for non-violent acts or drug-related low-level offences.

For another year, the report explains that the prison situation in the world is, in general, very bad because of the degradation of conditions and the growing number of people in prison. It is for this reason that a list of recommendations has been elaborated for states and their penitentiary policies:

  • States should introduce new legislation to reduce prison rates, focussing on priorities related to measures to prevent crime, alternatives to prison and rehabilitation.
  • It is necessary to implement strategies to address the overpopulation of prisons by extending the use of alternatives to prison and fight for the reduction of poverty and inequality.
  • States should abide by, respect and the protect human rights and the procedural safeguards of those detained. This way, mistreatment and torture would be avoided.
  • Preventive prison should only be used as a last resort, and should bear in mind thepresumption of innocence and the principles of need and proportionality.
  • Monetary bale policies should be revised to ensure that people with limited resources are not discriminated against.
  • Sentencing should be guided by international law, including the UN agreements of Tokyo and Bangkok.
  • States should reduce the use of the life sentence. Life sentences without the option of parole should be abolished.
  • The living conditions of prisoners sentenced must correspond to the norms established by the so-called “Rules” of Nelson Mandela.
  • States that still apply the death penalty should move to abolish it, establishing a moratorium as a first step towards its extinction.
  • States should revise their policies related to drugs. It is necessary to decriminalise minor offences and apply proportional sentences.
  • The imprisoning of children should be a last resort, and the death penalty and life sentences should be prohibited in the case of minors.
  • States should adopt justice and protection policies and systems for children to address violence and mistreatment.
  • The UN Bangkok norms must provide guidance for states in penal justice reform in order to guarantee that systems meet the needs of imprisoned women.
  • The sentencing of women should bear in mind any victimisation, child-care responsibilities and the context of the criminal conduct, potentiating reclusion-free sanctions.

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Interpol Stadia project: providing security for great sporting events

The major international sporting events, such as the Olympic Games and FIFA World Cup competitions, set many police and security-related challenges for host countries.

Apart from taking place in large, complex and scattered venues, these events can attract a range of criminal activities, from skirmishes and violence to cyber attacks and even terrorism.

With its global network of experts, Interpol is in an ideal position to serve as a central core to provide research, design, planning, coordination and training to address this challenge, within a structure that ensures certain standards of quality.

The Stadia project was founded by Interpol in 2012 and financed by Qatar, with the aim of creating a centre of excellence to help Interpol member states to plan and execute security preparation measures for major sporting events.

By combining good practices and lessons learned by member countries that have hosted major international sports events, the project can help future hosts to improve preparation measures thanks to the latest knowledge and experience.

The Stadia project organises annual meetings of experts about key issues concerning legislation, physical security and cybernetic security.

These meetings gather together police experts from all over the world, events organisation committees, government, the private sector, the academy and civil society to explore cutting-edge research and analysis and develop independent recommendations to plan and execute security arrangements for major international sporting events.

All countries that host an important sporting event want to avoid problems and be successful. Every event offers many valuable lessons, not only for the host, but also for anyone wishing to host important events in the future.

To gather good practices and lessons learned before, during and after major international sports events, the Stadia project carries out observation programmes and debates with experts from the security field, both within the public sector and the private one, that have direct responsibilities in surveillance and security operations.

The Stadia project works with recognised academic institutions to identify training needs and develop training study plans, along with a programme with international accreditation.

The accumulated learning based on a range of activities previously described is consolidated and is shared among countries that are members of Interpol via a system of knowledge based on a latest generation website with two components:

  • A broad repository of knowledge of good practice in all aspects of security of the sporting event, to which all member countries can contribute and all of which can benefit from.
  • An online collaboration platform where experts in the field can share, debate, analyse and publish information about evolutionary aspects of sports-related security regarding important events.

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Several ways to be a victim of a cybernetic crime

The fifth annual Europol report on organised criminal threats (IOCTA) offers a unique vision of the application of the law to emerging threats and the key developments in the field of cybercrime over the last year. However, more than this, it describes future threats and provides recommendations to the European police authorities to deal with these threats appropriately.

Cybercriminals are adopting new creative techniques to deceive their victims and are constantly seeking methods to avoid police detection. Some of the most used methods by cybercriminals are the following:

  1. Ransomware: criminals go from random attacks to attacking companies or particular individuals, where potential profits are higher.
  2. Mobile malware can grow as users go from their online bank to the mobile bank.
  3. Cybernetic attacks have become more difficult to detect. The attacks used by the wireless malware programme have turned into a standard component in the criminal industry.
  4. Legislation of the general norms for data protection include an obligation to notify offences within 72 hours. Criminals can try to extort violated organisations.
  5. The latest reason for network intrusions is the illegal acquisition of data with different ends, including phishing or fraud payment.
  6. DoS attacks continue to grow and the tools for launching them are easily available as a service, which allows non-qualified individuals to launch important DoS attacks.
  7. A continued increase is expected in the volume of social engineering attacks, but as a key component of more complex cyberattacks. In the future, the scammers of western Africa will probably have a more important role within the EU, as Africa continues to have use of the fastest growing internet on an international scale.
  8. Cybernetic attacks that traditionally focused on traditional financial instruments are now aimed at companies and users of crypto coins
  9. The increase in extortion demands and ransomware in these currencies exemplifies this change.
  10. Online child sex exploitation continues to be the most worrying aspect of cybercrime, with volumes of material, beyond imagination ten years ago, partly because of the growing number of small children with access to enabled devices for internet and social networks.
  11. This leads to an explosion of self-generated material.
  12. Criminals are continually looking for new ways of avoiding Police detection, including anonymization and encryption tools, everyday communication applications with end-to-end encryption, social network platforms or even within the bitcoin blocking chain. Most materials are still found on the surface of Internet, but some of the most extreme material tends to be located on hidden services that can only be accessed via the dark net.
  13. Live broadcasting of child sex abuse continues to be an especially difficult crime to investigate and it is likely to increase even more in the future.
  14. The faking of payment cards (skimming) continues to be successful inasmuch as the magnetic bands of the cards are used.
  15. Telecommunications fraud is an old trend, but a growing one, that involves non-cash payments.

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California wants to control the sale of munition to combat armed violence

The citizens of the United States of America have the right to possess firearms in accordance with the second amendment of the American Constitution of 1789, and it was not until the federal firearms control law in 1968, after the assassination of Martin Luther King, that the minimum age for firearm possession was raised to 21 years of age.

The sale of firearms has a specific regulation and, depending on the state, the norms can be more or less permissive. Despite this, acquiring munition is quite easy in the United States in general, as manifested by the states that have provided the chance to purchase in non-specialised establishments. In the state of Georgia, munition can be bought in pharmacies; in the state of Pennsylvania, it can bought in self-service vending machines and, in the state of Texas, in jeweller’s shops.

California is now one of the states with restrictive regulations regarding the sale of firearms in the USA. However, it has taken a step further with the control of the sale of munition. Habitually, regulations concerning the sale of munition are not as strict as those regarding the acquisition of firearms; for example, there is no minimum age in a federal context to be able to buy bullets. But in California being able to buy munition has become complicated in order to combat armed crime via local legislation.

Since the approval of proposal 63, voted by the citizenship, bullets can only be bought in armouries authorised by the Department of Justice. Those buying weapons and munition in California have to identify themselves with a digital print in specialised stores. This new regulation imposes controls on those who wish to obtain munition by purchasing it in other states, which must be done in armouries, which will check for any criminal record. Even sales via Internet have been restricted and it cannot be sent directly to the home, as it must be sent to authorised establishments.

Authorised distributors of munition are obliged to keep a record of all bullet sales throughout the state of California from the start of 2019.

Opponents of these measures, a noteworthy one of these being the National Rifle Association, criticise such measures because of the increase in administration costs due to the application of the measure, and because of the difficulty that non-dangerous people have to obtain weapons.

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“Nadia”: The theatre as a weapon to combat radicalisation among the young

Nadia - Théâtre de LiègeA play written by the Dutch playwright Daniël Van Klaveren, tells the story of two fifteen-year old adolescent girls who, like other girls of their age, spend much of their time connected to Internet. One of them, Nadia, is seduced by the rhetoric of a Daesh lieutenant and begins a process of personal transformation that causes confrontation with her best friend. The play depicts the last days of Nadia’s life before leaving for the Caliphate.

The actors go to secondary schools to tell this story with the aim of making young people aware of the dangers underlying radicalisation and a loss of identity and about the challenges involved in finding an identity.

“Nadia” is the result of a theatre collaboration project involving five European companies[1]. This show, with different versions, was premiered in several European cities throughout 2017. It is a pedagogical collaborative experience that allows young Europeans to connect online to together explore radicalisation processes, social injustice, the feeling of belonging and what being young means in contemporary society.

The city of Liege participated in this pedagogical initiative of an artistic nature via the Theatre of Liege. Other pedagogical activities especially aimed at the young community in this city are:

  • The animated film “TORU” conceived and made by adolescents to arouse critical reflection, freedom of thought, deciphers mechanisms of manipulation and the causes connected to extremist and sectarian movements.
  • The implantation of the active pedagogy known as “BOUNCE-Youth resilience”. The objective is to reinforce self-esteem, the ability to assert oneself and to relate to other young people to stimulate resistance to extremist ideas that lead to violence.
  • “The road to democracy and freedom” is an urban circuit through seven symbolic areas of the city of Liege. This itinerary stresses the values of tolerance, of democracy, of freedom and peace; it also promotes civic values that are fundamental for social cohabitation.

This pedagogical initiative of an artistic nature is yet another expression of how one can contribute to the prevention of violent radicalisation via the educational, social and cultural environment, to reinforce resilience among vulnerable groups.

Links of interest:

https://www.rtc.be/video/culture/le_theatre_de_liege_s_invite_a_l_ecole_avec_la_piece_nadia-1496737-999-325.html#

http://theatredeliege.be/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Dossier_Nadia_01_2018.pdf

http://arts-sceniques.be/rencontre/nadia/

http://www.etc-cte.org/base.php?code=1111

http://www.searchingfornadia.eu/project-guide/

http://theatredeliege.be/nadia/

https://efus.eu/fr/topics/risks-forms-of-crime/radicalisation/efus/11756/

[1] Nadia is a coproduction of la Fondazione Teatro Due Parma (Italy), Staatstheater Braunschweig (Germany), Det Norske Teatret Oslo (Norway), Théâtre de Liège (Belgium) i De Toneelmarkerij Amsterdam (the Netherlands).

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Notable and sustained drop in juvenile crime in Australia

young offenders in AustraliaThe Australian Institute of Criminology has published the results of a research project carried out by Payne, Brown and Broadhurst about the criminal career of the generations born in 1984 and 1994. It involved finding out what influence criminal trends during a person’s first years of life had. 1984 was a year when the crime rate was consistently increasing, whereas 1994 saw a downward trend. The study focused on the population in the state of New South Wales, which, furthermore, is the most populated in the country. The generation of 1984 consisted of 83,328 persons and that of 1994, of 89,373.

The results were very clear. The percentage of people under 21 that have committed some type of crime fell from 9.5% to 4.8%. If we separate them into different crime typologies, we find that:

  • Violent crime fell from 2.6% to 1.8% (a 42% drop).
  • Crimes against property fell from 3.8% to 1.7%.
  • Crimes against public health (drugs) fell from 1.7% to 1.3%.
  • Cases of affray fell from 3.3% to 1.9%.

In overall numbers, young people (-21) of the 1984 generation committed 7,900 crimes, whereas those of the 1994 generation committed 4,341.

The study divides criminals into occasional criminals (1 crime), moderates (between 2 and 4 crimes) and chronic cases (5 or more). In this case, the comparison shows that for the 94 generation the relative importance of chronic criminals is bigger. While in the case of the 84 generation chronic criminals committed 23.1% of all crimes, the percentage among the 94 generation was 31.5%. Therefore, although they are less in the first group (1.5% as opposed to 2.2%), they are much more prolific criminals.

Regarding the reasons underlying this reduction in youth crime, the study points out the following:

  • The improvement in security for both private and public property (security measures and the design of buildings and vehicles).
  • The increase in wealth in New South Wales, which has improved its inhabitants’ standard of living.
  • The reduction in time that minors spend in the street without any form of supervision (online activities at home are stated as one of the causes, but that could lead to other types of network-related crime).
  • The reduction in the number of youths that casually get involved in a criminal career.

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The Commission on Youth Violence in England and Wales identify six key areas of intervention

Youth Violence Comission - Interim Report July 2018This commission’s provisional report (pending the definitive one that will be seen in autumn) prepared based on the results of the commission’s work until now (which includes surveys, interviews with young people who were affected, parents, police officers, social workers, community leaders and other experts) focuses on six key areas of intervention in order to address the causes underlying the use of violence by youths[1]. These are the following:

  1. Develop a national model of public healthcare. They ratify the principles followed in Scotland where the treatment of youth violence has been of an epidemiological nature (following the model of treatment of violence of the World Health Organisation). It is very important to point out that that this healthcare approach to the problem requires the whole system to integrate this cultural change and to have sufficient political consensus.
  2. It is necessary to focus on childhood years and on the earliest intervention possible. They have found evidence of the importance of childhood, sexual, emotional violence, abuse, neglect or growing up with parents addicted to drugs in the appearance of violent behaviour among youths and adolescents. Having lived or suffered violence during the first years of life makes them regard violence as something habitual and trivialise it (a not inconsiderable percentage of violent youths say they have felt unsafe at home).
  3. Reform the youth care service. This would involve the establishing of a national youth policy to serve as a framework, a review of the distribution of funds (an increase in the number of cases of childhood mental illnesses and disorderly behaviour has coincided with a reduction in finance made available for these services and too many projects have been financed on a short-term basis), such as fomenting interventions in religious groups. They believe that the so-called faith leaders (chaplains, clergymen, etc.) are in a position to make a positive contribution to the prevention of youth violence.
  4. Increase support for schools. It is necessary to try to reduce academic failure to zero. Students that are excluded from the educational system because of poor results show a much higher percentage of violent behaviour than those who complete their studies. They stress the relevance of reviewing how advice about curricular profiles is given to each child, about the teaching of sex-related issues and other related student habits and a better integration of a range of services to be found in schools (social workers, psychologists, etc.).
  5. Increase career opportunities. Schools should teach children skills and knowledge to gain them access to the labour market. Centres for the treatment of youths should increase the aspirations of youths and stop thinking that they can only aspire to poorly qualified jobs. An increase in learning resources available to young people would help them to break the cycle of unemployment that is frequently a family tradition.
  6. A stronger focus on community police strategies and a review of policies regarding the consumption of drugs. The report focuses on the questionnaire applied to young people showing that 46% of them would not turn to the police even if they were afraid of being the victims of a crime. It would be important for every centre of education to have a particular police officer as a point of reference for its students. It would also be necessary to bear in mind that young people that consume any kind of drug are much more prone to violent conduct.

[1] Vid. http://yvcommission.com/interim-report/

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“Pilot Project”: reinforcing the internal and external security of the European Union

EUNAVFORAn information cell against crime has recently been activated via operation EUNAVFOR Med, a Sophia Task Force operator which is active in the south Mediterranean. After the decision adopted by the EU Council on 14 May 2018, specialised personnel from the EU agencies Europol, Frontex –the European Border Agency and the Coast Guard – and the EUNAVFOR Med have been on board the Italian ship San Giusto as part of the Sophia operation.

The setting up the criminal information cell opens a new chapter for operational cooperation between security sectors and the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) and Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) that will try to reinforce their collective effectiveness and operational impact.

The anti-crime information cell can improve the exchange of information regarding criminal activities in the central Mediterranean and provide a platform to take advantage of the unique capacities of the agencies to intercept criminal networks in the scope of the EUNAVFOR MED operation and beyond.

The anti-crime information cell can facilitate the gathering and transfer of information about illegal people trafficking, implementing an embargo  on UN weapons in Libya, the illegal exporting of petroleum from Libya in accordance with UNSCR  2146 (2014) and 2362 (2017), as well as criminal activity related to the security of the operation itself.

The participation of Frontex in the anti-crime information cell will serve to develop global intelligence unit for illegal people trafficking and other types of cross-border criminal activities, including terrorism. The information provided by the anti-crime information cell will also improve the capacity for surveillance and EU external border control by Frontex.

The deployment of Frontexpot mobile teams can offer new opportunities to gather information about methods used by criminal groups and improve operational and strategic analysis carried out by Frontex, Europol and EUNAVFOR Med.

In close collaboration with members of the Information Society against Crime and the member states of the EU, Europol continues to work to give effective support to transnational investigations, focusing on organised smuggling of immigrants and on international and organised crime and terrorism.

Moreover, Europol will provide the EUNAVFOR Med Operation Sophia with all the resources to decide on operative decisions and tactics and contribute to the efficiency of the operation mandate.

The project’s trial period will last six months. At the end of the period, the pilot project’s lessons will also be used to provide information about future CSDP-JHA cooperation in a broader context.

EUNAVFOR Med Operation Sophia (ENFM) is a The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) operation focused on stopping the business model involved in people trafficking and immigrant traffickers and on contributing to EU efforts to restore stability and security in Libya and the central Mediterranean region. ENFM is the first EU seaborne force to provide security at sea in the central Mediterranean and works closely with different national and international, governmental and non-governmental, civil and military organisations.

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Belgium has seen a fall in its crime rate since 2011

“ Crime statistics are fundamental in order to reflect policies applied, but our interpretation of them is no less important. Working without data would mean working blindfold, but we cannot be blinded by data”. These aret he words of the General Commissioner, Marc De Mesmaeker[1]

Belgium’s federal police force published the 2017crime data last July;quantifying both attempted and completed crimes. There were a total of 860,604 incidents corresponding to a crime rate of 76 crimes per 1,000 inhabitants[2].

What do these figures explain?

Belgium has seen a steady drop in crime since 2011. For the 2007-2017 period, until 2012 the total number of crimes surpassed the million mark but from then until until 2017 the number of crimes committed has continually been below this figure.

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
1.002.857 1.006.950 1.023.984 1.026.312 1063.271 1.040.233 997.805 977.514 920.490 888.735 860.604

This drop on crime has been qualified as a International Crime Drop[3]. It was initially detected in the United States especially regarding crimes against property and, more specifically, regarding homicide in the city of New York;this trend can also be observed in other Western countries. This is probably the result of the interaction of a range of factors: improvements in police techniques and strategies, the technological development of preventive measures, video surveillance, the cheapening of electronic consumer goods, the ageing population, the penalties applied…[4]

Excel Belgica angles

The top 5 total offences at a national level, in 2017[5]

Of a total of 41 major criminal typologies, the five most frequently committed in descending order are:

2011 2016 2017
Robberies and extorsions 451.716 330.895 313.006
Damage to property 123.759 83.304 80.398
Offences against physical integrity 90.130 79.001 77.859
Drugs 48.143 54.833 55.944
Fraud 39.344 41.900 40.921

Although overall figures indicate a a downward trend, the fact remains that some criminal typologies have show nan upward trens since 2011 and this can be seen in “the top 5 typologies”, more specifically drug-related offences and fraud which in 2017 amounted to total of 4.94 and 3,61cases per 1,000 inhabitants respectively. The report of police crime statistics in Belgium (2000-2017) previously mentioned, specifically dedicates part III, page. 45, to the computer-related crime, category that rises from 26,552 cases in 2011 to 43,800 in 2016 and 44.165 in 2017; meaning an increase of over65%.Among the categories that record a higher number of cases computer-related fraud involving credit and debit cards, Internet scams and cyber harrasment aret he most noteworthy.

For further information the following links can be consulted:

https://www.police.be/5998/fr/actualites/les-statistiques-de-criminalite-au-point-le-plus-bas-depuis-2000

http://www.stat.policefederale.be/statistiquescriminalite/rapports/

News items connected to the “ Security notes” blog:

“Notable drop in crime in Germany” published11 July 2018 http://notesdeseguretat.blog.gencat.cat/2018/07/11/notable-descens-de-la-delinquencia-a-alemanya/

“ The number of homicides plummets to record low figures in the city of New York” published 14 February 2018. http://notesdeseguretat.blog.gencat.cat/2018/02/14/els-homicidis-es-desplomen-a-minims-historics-a-la-ciutat-de-nova-york/

“The number of crimes recorded by the Ertzaintza continues to fall” published 20 November 2017

http://notesdeseguretat.blog.gencat.cat/2017/11/20/segueixen-disminuint-els-fets-delictius-registrats-per-lertzaintza/

“Notable drop in crimes against property in Switzerland” published on 24 May 2017 http://notesdeseguretat.blog.gencat.cat/2017/05/24/notable-descens-dels-delictes-contra-la-propietat-a-suissa/

“Reported crime in Spain fell by 1.2% in comparison with 2015” published on 22 March 2017

http://notesdeseguretat.blog.gencat.cat/2017/03/22/els-delictes-coneguts-a-espanya-van-baixar-un-12-respecte-al-2015/

“Sustained drop in crime in Switzerland” published 15 June 2016 http://notesdeseguretat.blog.gencat.cat/2016/06/15/descens-persistent-de-la-delinquencia-a-suissa/

[1]https://www.politie.be/5998/fr/actualites/nomination-du-nouveau-commissaire-general

[2]The Belgian population on 1st January 2017 was 11,322,088 inhabitants. Source consulted: https://statbel.fgov.be/fr/themes/population/structure-de-la-population

[3]van Dijk, JJM, Tseloni, A, &Farrell, G (Eds.). (2012). The International CrimeDrop: New Directions in Research. Basingstoke: PalgraveMacmillan; Farrell: Five tests for a theory of thecrimedrop. CrimeScience 2013.

[4]http://www.stat.policefederale.be/assets/pdf/notes/tendances_2016_2017_SPC.pdfpàg 29.

[5]Police crime statistics. Belgium 2000-2017. Police fédérale – DGR/DRI/BIPOL. Statistics obtained with the help of Datawarehouse repository(closure date 23 April 2018). http://www.stat.policefederale.be/assets/pdf/crimestat/nationaal/rapport_2017_trim4_nat_belgique_fr.pdf

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